M1885 Portuguese Guedes:

The following are text, notes and photographs from an article published by Sr. Jaime Regalado in the Bulletin of Portuguese Academy of Antique Arms.  Sr. Regalado is kind enough to allow me to post this invaluable information here.

Please note that this page is Copyright Jaime Regalado, 1999, 2000 in its entirety.
Enjoy!!

"  ... invented a rifle that was later made in Austria at the expense of the Portuguese Government but  was never in fact distributed to the Army. He made studies of a rear gun sight which Portugal did not take advantage of. When he found himself in difficulties he requested and was given authorisation to sell  it to the German government, which used it in the Great War. He had been illuminated of late by a great dream, a new and ultimate  invention upon which he spent the  last of his energy a perfect rifle, which required an insignificant amount for its manufacture and  testing. He knocked on every door of every ministry and government department  in vain. He was a dreamer. General Guedes Dias was  Portuguese!"
  in Diário de Notícias dated August 1st 1926  giving notice of the death of  General Castro Guedes Dias
 

The earliest records of the first tests carried out with the rifle using the system conceived by the 2nd Lieutenant in the 10th "Caçadores" Regiment, Castro Guedes Dias, took place in July 1880 at the Vendas Novas firing range, as we can see from a request made by Castro Guedes himself to the War Office dated July 20th 1880 [1].

These tests, which we shall here consider as initial tests, went on into the month of August as we can observe
from various requests to prolong the stay in Lisbon, of 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes, all dispatched favourably,
enabling him to be absent from his unit until the middle of August.

These tests created such great interest, both on the part of 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes and the War Office Secretary
himself that they were followed by various experiments at the Vendas Novas and Tancos firing ranges in 1881
and 1882.

In December 1882 the War Office Secretary issued a pass for the transfer of 2nd Lt. Guedes and his orderly to the Tancoís Practical Academy of Engineering and asked the commanding officer of this unit to furnish a report on the tests carried out with this system of a firearm at the Academyís firing range. In fact it was at the suggestion of his commanding officer that 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes, now in the 4th Infantry, asked the War Office Secretary in January 1883 for permission to carry out large scale tests with this weapon of his invention and for the nomination of a weaponry evaluation committee to observe these tests [2].

The said committee must have written a favourable report on the experiments carried out at Tancos during the
month of February 1883.

Until this time the studies of 2nd Lt. Guedes would have almost exclusively been looking at the firing and breech
mechanisms and not on the weapon as a whole, because in the above mentioned document he also asks to be
supplied with "Ö two Gras barrels and at least 1000 complete Gras cartridges" for the large scale tests to be
carried out at Tancos. Furthermore, the successive requests for the reimbursement of the expenses incurred in
the construction and perfection of this weapon lead us to believe that the work was not done at the Royal Arms
Factory (old Royal Army Arsenal) but rather in civilian workshops and at the expense of 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes
himself.

It is in 1883 that the first reference is made to an intention to register the patent of invention of this weapon [2],
with a request for "Öone million seven hundred and thirty thousand reis, amount necessary for the two
privileges (breach block and safety system) for a period of ten years in the following countries: France,
Germany, England, Belgium, United States, Spain and Portugal"

Tests requested by 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes took place at the Tancos firing range in February 1883 and a report was produced by the Commanding Officer of the Practical Academy of Engineering.

In the sequence of a process initiated by Fontes Pereiro de Melo, War Minister, who had acquired some
weapons of diverse systems from foreign countries in order to carry out tests to choose a weapon for the
Portuguese Army, a commission was nominated in June of 1878 to examine these weapons and carry out any tests
wich might be necessary.

In June 1883 the Director-General of Artillery asked that this commission of Officers carry out new large scale
tests on the Guedes rifle system, this time at the Vendas Novas firing range [3]. We know that these tests showed
good results and received excellent reports from the analysing commission.

The tests continued until June 1884. This time, and after the favourable opinion of the said commission, the  work of making and perfecting the weapon took place in the Royal Arms Factory workshops at Lisbon, with the Factory General Manager ordering the production of 50 of these rifles in accordance with the drawings and indications being provided by 2nd Lt. Guedes himself.

In July 29th of 1884 the 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes gets the patent for the breech block for small arms described as
Guedes System and a safety system [30].

This first model of the Guedes system rifle (Fig. 2) used a 4 grove 11 mm Gras rifled barrel. This was a
single-shot, breech loading, and central firing rifle using metal cartridge ammunition with black gunpowder. The
breech system was a vertical sliding block under the action of an external lever which is also the trigger-guard.
The very strong brass mechanism box, solidly fixed to the barrel, also joins the butt and the shank together.

The breech block is a prismatic box that houses the cocking and uncocking mechanism with a characteristic
cartridge scoop on top to facilitate loading and extraction.

Lowering the main lever as far down as it will go will cock the firing pin (inner hammer), and will press an internal
lever that generates the movement of the extractor and will expel the fired cartridge from the chamber. After
introducing a new cartridge the breech is closed by raising the main lever until it is held by the notch in the butt
and the rifle is ready to be fired (Fig. 3).

(KD Note:  All  pictures on this page are high density ... feel free to download them and view them with a suitable picture viewer.  They are of excellent detail!)

Fig 3                                                                                    Fig 3a
 

The safety mechanism is extremely simple. A small bolt slides laterally between two guides, stopping the trigger from following its course and consequently firing the gun (Fig. 4).


Fig 4.

Externally this weapon is characterised by a brass receiver housing with a unique design. The right side of the
mechanism housing carries the stamped inscription FA above the year 1884 and the visible extractor-axis screw.
On the left side there is a very large screw which is the guide and stop for the falling breech block. There is also
another small screw with an indented head which, when turned a quarter turn, frees the rotation axis of the main
lever (trigger guard).

These rifles are fitted with a sabre-bayonet with a Yatagan type blade, iron guard and brass furniture. The
scabbard is of leather with brass fittings (Fig. 2).  (fig 2 is not available)

None of the examples I have seen bore a number or other type of inscription or stamp different from that
described above, but all the bolts and different parts of the mechanism were numbered with the same number in
the same gun.

Instructions were given that as soon as eleven of these rifles were ready one was to be handed to King D. Luis,
whilst the other 10 were destined to give continuity to the tests still being carried out at the Tancos and Vendas
Novas firing ranges during 1884.

In July 1884 the War Office ordered 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes to Steyr, in Austria, to study the possibility of
manufacturing these weapons invented by him [4] and authorised him to order 20 of these rifles from this factory,
19 with 11 mm Gras barrels and one with an 8 mm barrel.

These weapons manufactured in Steyr came with some improvements over the first model made at the Royal Arms Factory. The breech housing was now made of steel instead of brass. The very large screw that served as a guide and stop for the breech block was now on the right hand side of the mechanism housing, and on the left hand side there were now two screws visible, one the extractor axis and the other (a the new one) was a stop for the cocking lever. The main lever (trigger guard) axis bolt and the brake bolt were also smaller in size. The only known example, which I think was part of these 20 (prototype) weapons made in Steyr, can be seen in the Lisbon Military Museum. This 11 mm rifle must be one of the 19 that came with Lt. Castro Guedes. The right side of the mechanism housing bears the cursive inscription "Sistema Guedes".

Lt. Castro Guedes return from Austria in December 1884 is marked by a curious situation, described by a
telegram addressed to the War Minister. Lt. Castro Guedes was detained in Handaia for nine days, not having
permission to cross Spain with these 20 rifles that he had been authorised to have made in Steyr [5].

On the 14th of February 1885 Lt. Castro Guedes went to Vendas Novas to test the 8 mm rifle from Austria in the
presence of the commission nominated by the General Director of Artillery. The report handed over in April
concluded that the Guedes System weapon should be considered a good weapon for use in warfare.

Still during the month of April, other tests were made with the 11 mm gun, at which time the commission observed
the merits of these weapons even though some of them had certain defects.

The commission made a later observation in relation to the 8 mm gun. It said that the gunpowder charge should
be increased from 4 g to 4.5 g, with the necessary corrections being made to the chamber, barrel length and
grooves progression [6].

A War Ministry dispatch dated October 3rd 1885 ordered the General Director of Artillery to contract the OEWG factory in Steyr (through Mr. Henrique Burnay) to make 40,000 Guedes System rifles and 9,000 Kropatschek carbines, being 6,000 for the "Caçadores" Regiments and 3,000 for the Cavalry, plus the machines for making the respective ammunition.

These experiments clearly showed the superiority of the 8 mm gun in comparison to the 11 mm, which, on a par
with the studies made in other European countries, led to the choice of the smaller calibre weapons. Thus, the
arms ordered from Steyr were of the 8 mm type with a gunpowder charge of 4.5 g.

The contract was made official by a dispatch dated October 8th, with delivery to be made 9 months later at a cost
of 68 francs for each Guedes System weapon, including transport to Anvers.

Captain Cardoso, Captain Mathias Nunes and Lt. Castro Guedes were to be present at the factory to oversee the
manufacture, verification and reception of these guns.

Now in the factory at Steyr, and with the rifling and chamber having been altered to receive the 4.5 g gunpowder charge as the tests in Vendas Novas had shown to more suitable, it was discovered that extraction was extremely irregular and it was often very difficult to open the breech block. Therefore some small alterations were introduced at this stage to the breech block, so that when it was opened there was a slight rotating movement to allow easier extraction. The Steyr factory accepted these alterations.

The officers commissioned in Austria for the manufacture, verification and reception of these guns were ordered to send the first ten completed weapons to Portugal for testing and adjusting of the rear sights.

A dispatch dated March 21st 1886 says that during the firing of these first ten guns there had been a systematic downward dislocation of the breech block. Furthermore, it was noted that a knock on the butt of the rifle would easily open the block. These problems, obviously due to these latest alterations, could be resolved after manufacture and finishing if each gun was subjected individually to certain corrections.

It was not considered practical to carry out this work in a factory and the OEWG factory made an official declaration stating that it was impossible to accept responsibility for the complete stability and safety of the breech block and lever during firing.

Having notified the War Ministry of this fact on March 26th 1886, a telegram was sent to the factory on the same day suspending the manufacture of the Guedes System rifles. On this date there were some 18,000 guns either completed or in the process of manufacture.

Some days later, in the presence of Lt. Castro Guedes and the Artillery Office Commission that had accompanied this process from the beginning, it was decided that in spite of the weaponís excellent ballistic characteristics and first class barrel, it should be rejected as a war weapon as long as it has the Guedes System breech. This decision was issued in a War Ministry Dispatch dated April 9th 1896.

In communicating this decision to OEWG, Portugal requested a reduction in the number of weapons contracted.  The Steyr factory said this was impossible and suggested they deliver the 18,000 already in the finishing stages  and the other 22,000 be substituted by Kropatschek guns.

In a telegram of May 8th 1886 the Guedes System gun was rejected in its totality, permitting production to begin from that date of Kropatschek rifles and carbines, thus guaranteeing more uniformity of armament with the 9,000 carbines already ordered for the Cavalry and, even more important, the general adoption of a repeating weapon by the Portuguese Army.

Considering the higher price of Kropatschek guns (85.5 francs against 68 francs for the Guedes gun) and the costs incurred in cancelling the contract, this alteration meant an increase in cost in relation to the initial contract of 132,300$000 reis, with the 18,000 Guedes System rifles remaining the property of the OEWG factory in Steyr.  This new contract was also established through Mr. H. Burnay.

In spite of the lack of success of this gun, Lt. Castro Guedes studies continued. In November 1886 his request for three months leave to go abroad (obviously to Steyr) in order to study the possibility of adapting his invention to a repeater system was granted, with further extensions being authorised which extended his leave until the end of April 1887 [7].

Conclusion

Throughout this work I have tried to trace the route taken by this gun, its advances and retreats, based on official documents of the time.

Now we can produce the natural systematisation of the various models and variations of this weapon throughout this process to provide collectors with a line of reference.

First of all, it is important that we clarify once and for all that in spite of the fact that the Guedes System gun was formally adopted as an Infantry weapon, it was never used in service by the Portuguese Army, nor issued to arm
militias overseas.

Contrary to what is frequently reported there were only 18,000* made and not 40,000. Although these arms were made at the expense of the Portuguese Government they never arrived in Portugal. They were sold directly to Transavaal and the Orange Free State by the OEWG factory in Steyr and used in the Boer Wars. Besides the beautiful monogram and crown of D. Luis I and the OEWG, Steyr engravings, a lot of these guns also bore the stamp Z.A.R. (Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek). The markings were always crude stampings, the letters stamped individually, and placed on the receiver flat above the chamber and forward of the breech block.
*(Keith Doyon Note:  Sr: Regalado & I have had discussions regarding this.  I believe that no more than 8,100 were ever made, Portugal was billed for 18,000 by Styer but the remaining 10,000 were never built.  Not the first or last time that a government contractor made a bit of extra money!!  Also refer to Ron Bester's book Boer Rifles and Carbines of the Angol-Boer War wherein he has come to the same conslusion )

The only Guedes System guns existing in Portugal are examples made in Lisbon in 1884 andthe examples brought or sent from Steyr for tests necessary for improvements and adoption of the same.
 

Based on its characteristics we can define three models of the Guedes System rifle.

FA 1884 Model:

Made in Lisbon at the Arms Factory (FA). This 11 mm gun has a brass mechanism housing and 4
counter-clockwise grooves (Fig. 2), 50 of which were manufactured under the supervision of 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes himself for tests and one of which was offered to King D. Luis.

In this model, the breech mechanism its probably the same initially conceived by 2nd Lt Castro Guedes and  used in the early experiments that preceded the manufacture of this experimental model.

This very simple mechanism, housed in the prismatic box (breech-block) (Fig. 7), its composed by a firing


Fig 7                                                                                            Fig 7a

pin/inner hammer that includes the tumbler in the same piece, the trigger is simultaneously the sear that will catch the notch in the tumbler. The only spring is a V-shaped main spring where one of the arms pushes the inner hammer/firing pin and the other arm pushes the upper part of the trigger against the tumbler allowing it to catch the notch when the mechanism is armed (Fig. 8).


Fig 8

In the 1884 FA model mechanism the inner hammer is armed by a direct action of the lever when itís lowered down. This movement of the lever (simultaneously the trigger-guard) will cause the breech-block to slide downwards. When the breech-block ends the course, the lever will act directly on the rear arm of the inner
hammer cocking the mechanism. Simultaneously it will also press an internal lever that generates the movement
of the extractor.

Steyr 1884 Model:

This model which resulted from improvements made to the previous model (FA 1884) and made by 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes in the Steyr factory before the end of 1884. The breech housing was made of steel with slight changes to the shape. It also bore the "Sistema Guedes" inscription. This is the model that contains the deepest changes made to the breech mechanism. Simply by looking at the exterior of the mechanism we can see that the large screw that served as guide and stop for the breech block has moved from the right to the left side of the housing and there is an additional screw which goes through the housing at the side of the extractor bolt axis.

These simple external changes reflects some deep changes in the cocking/uncocking mechanism. If we observe comparatively both mechanisms (Fig. 9) we can see that all the components were redesigned, including the prismatic box that houses all the mechanism. (Fig. 10).


Fig 9                                                                                    Fig 10

The V-shaped main spring gained a different shape besides that it assures the same functions as in the FA 1884
model, as well as the trigger that is now an almost straight bar.

The inner hammer/firing pin is the piece of mechanism that is more deeply changed. This model is no longer cocked by direct action of the lever (trigger guard). When the breech-block slides down by direct action of lowering the lever, the front part of the inner hammer is pushed against the stop screw (the new screw in this model which goes through the housing, very close to the extractor axis) and forced to rotate until the sear (upper part of the trigger) catches the notch in the tumbler (rear part of the hammer).

In the Steyr 1884 Model the rotation of the lever promotes exactly the same 3 actions as in the FA 1884 Model, but the only direct action is to slide downwards the breech-block. The action of cocking the inner hammer and
extraction are now a consequence of the movement of the breech-block and its indirect action of the lever.

There are no changes in the safety system. Thus we have two variations of this model:
1st variation: 11 mm, of which 19 rifles were made;
2nd variation: 8 mm, of which only 1 was made.

These guns were brought from Steyr by 2nd Lt. Castro Guedes himself and are exclusively experimental models.

Steyr 1885 Model:

This model (Fig. 11) was the result of changes made to the previous 8 mm model. These included the powder charge being changed to 4.5 g and the respective alterations to the chamber, barrel length and rifling. There was also a slight correction made to the movement of the breech block, making it easier to open and providing a more efficient extraction.

The trigger retains its straight form and the safety system is identical to the previous models.

This model was established in 1885 and production began in 1886, as can be verified by the inscription on the left side of the mechanism housing (Fig. 13).


Fig 13

On the right side of the mechanisms housing is engraved an elaborate monogram of D. Luis I (Fig. 14), decorated with arabesques and the royal crown.
 
 

The main components of this gun, like the barrel, the mechanism housing and the breech block, bear a small stamp of an "A" (Approved) as well as a "P" (Proofed) [12]. Close to these stamps there is a stamped small crown. That crown used to be associated with the king cipher but in these case stands alone. This can be related with the stamps from inspector officers. All these marks were stamped in the Arms Factory at Lisbon. Another letter of unknown significance is a stamped "K". I donít even know if itís a Portuguese mark because the letter K donít takes part of the Portuguese alphabet (Fig. 15).


Fig 15

All the parts of these rifles are numbered.

These Steyr 1885 model have a 775 mm, 5 counter-clockwise groves, 8 mm barrel. It uses ammunition of 4,5 g
gunpowder charge (Fig. 18) which assures a muzzle speed of 457 m/s.

This model has a sabre-bayonet with a straight blade and iron scabbard, very similar to the bayonet of the Kropatschek rifle, and in the back edge of the blade it has the inscription Steyr 1886.

Only a small number of these rifles came to Portugal, a little more than the examples which came to adjust the rear sights in 1886.

A variant from this Steyr 1885 model, for hunting proposals , is in the Lisbon Military Museum, in the collection from King D. Luis I. This gun is basically the military model but with a half-stock and a high quality finishing in the woods. The mechanism remain the same, except that to avoid the problem of opening the breech-block, the main lever, when closed, its locked by a small mechanism that only allows to open the breech when a small lever is pressed. (Unfortunately I donít have yet any photographs from this gun)

The different models and variation of the Guedes Rifles as well as its most important characteristics can be presented in a systematic way through the Table I.

Taking a more superficial look it appears that the Guedes System gun, or any other single shot breechloader rifle, was immediately obsolete by comparison with any repeating breechloading weapon. But, looking at it in the tactical context of the time, and more specifically the military situation and type of threat that we faced, especially overseas at the end of the last century, the comparison is not so direct.

If we compare the time necessary to fire the number of shots that a loaded repeating breechloader rifle could hold at one loading, with the time necessary to fire the same number of shots with a single shot weapon, then obviously the repeater is much quicker. But if we compare the time taken by both guns to fire 50 shots, or how many shots can be done in 5 minutes of fire for example, the advantage would probably not go to the repeater but rather to the single shot weapon. The reason for this is because the repeater has longer loading times, leaving the soldier defenceless when he is reloading.

Other factors also carry a certain weight, such as the fact that with tubular magazine weapons, as was the case at
that time, the higher the calibre, the heavier the gun when loaded and the distribution of this weight along the
whole was not favourable to accurate shooting.

The voice of officers experiences in campaigns also tells us that the soldier takes less care when firing a repeater than with a single shot rifle, which consequently leads to a higher wastage of ammunition and lower efficiency in shooting.

It is curious that in 1889, knowing of the Armyís intention to acquire a further 3,000 Kropatschek carbines for the
Engineers, Lt. Castro Guedes again proposed his invention, alleging that his gun could fire exactly the same
number of shots in 2 minutes as the Kropatschek. An identical request was made in 1893 in relation to the
acquisition of carbines for the Cavalry.

The study made by Lt. Castro Guedes about the adaptation of his invention to a repeating system did not provide any further information nor even any drawings or experimental model.

All of this process of choosing, improving and adoption of a weapon for the Infantry resulted in the fact that Portugal was one of the first countries to opt for the smaller calibre gun, of which Lt. Castro Guedes was an avid defender.

Biographical Notes:

Luis Fausto de Castro Guedes Dias was born on December 14th 1854 in Lisbon, son of Luis José Dias and D.
Adelaide Maria de Castro Guedes Dias. He joined the Navy on October 14th 1873 as an extraordinary
midshipman, where he remained until September 4th 1875. In October of the same year he volunteered for the
5th Battalion Snipers and graduated as 2nd Lieutenant in December 1877. He saw service in diverse units,
especially in order to carry out tests on the gun he invented.

On December 8th 1880 he married a distant cousin, D. Zephirina Adelaide de Castro Guedes Silva Sanches de
Miranda. Promoted to Lieutenant by the Snipers on October 3rd 1884 he maintained this rank for the majority of
the time he spent perfecting the Guedes System rifle which was to be later manufactured in Austria. He made
various dislocations to this country not just to conduct the manufacturing process of the gun but also to further his
general knowledge of light arms and the tactical use of the same.

Promoted Infantry Captain on December 21st 1890, he completed a one year commission in Mozambique. In 1893 became part of the General Staff and made Knight of the Royal Order of S. Bento of Aviz. In 1894 joined the commission formed to revise the regulations for portable firearms after having been praised for his zealous and intelligent approach and assiduous interest taken in this commission [14], no longer taking part in the same when it became extinct [15].

In 1897 left the arms scene to become part of a commission for the Admiralty and Overseas Ministry [16].

In 1898 he rejoined the Army and was nominated Military Justice Prosecutor in Angola [17] and later Chief of the
Caxungo Council [18]. Returning to Lisbon in 1899 he served in various units, being promoted General Staff
Major in July 1902, year in which he suffered an accident in which an explosion gravely affected his eyesight,
causing him traumatic blindness from which he was to make a slow recovery.

In 1903 he became part of the commission which was to analyse and propose a model for the light arm to be used
by the Infantry, resulting in the choice of the Mauser 1904 model 6.5 mm calibre rifle. He made various journeys
with this commission, not just in the process of studying the weapon to adopt but also to supervise its manufacture
[19, 20, 21,], and was again praised for his zeal and dedication to this mission [22].

In 1905 he became an Officer of the Royal Military Order of S. Bento of Aviz.  Joined the reserve in December 1907, graduated to the rank of General after having been aide-de-camp to King D. Carlos.

Of Republican convictions, he closely followed the situations arising from the implantation of the Republic.
Personal friend of Machado Santos, he participated in the planning and execution of the attempt to bring Afonso
Costaís Government down on April 27th 1913, which led to his arrest in the Edward VII Park and a period of
exile in the Azores.

Modest and easy going, he was well known in Lisbon. Tireless worker who dedicated himself to the passionate study of chemistry and medicine, reference has been made to the fact that he almost transformed his home in Rua da Palmeira, nº 12 Ė R/C into a small laboratory [24].

General Castro Guedes Dias died in Lisbon on July 13th 1926 at his home, leaving his wife and two unmarried
daughters in precarious economic conditions.
 

References:

[1] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 6/3
[2] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 15
[3] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 18
[4] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 23/2
[5] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 25/1
[6] Mardel, Luis "História da arma de fogo portátil" Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa 1887
[7] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc
[8] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doç. 44/1-3
[9] Ferreira, J. Baptista "Armas Portáteis e Material de Artilharia" Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa 1909
[10] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. s/ número
[11] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. s/ número
[12] "Regulamento de Tiro da Infantaria", Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa, 1902
[13] C, (1896) "Apontamentos: Armas portateis do Exercito Portuguez" Revista Militar, Anno XLVIII, 4
[14] Portaria de 29 de Novembro de 1895
[15] O.E. nº 28 de 9 de Dezembro de 1895
[16] Portaria de 18 de Agosto de 1897
[17] Portaria do Governo Geral nº 383 de 22 de Outubro de 1898
[18] Portaria do Governo Geral nº 455 de 2 de Dezembro de 1898
[19] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 122
[20] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 125
[21] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 126/1 e 2
[22] Arq. Hist. Militar, 3ª Divisão, 7ª Secção, Cx. 1582, Proc. Guedes Dias, Doc. 123
[23] Jornal " O SÉCULO " de 1 de Agosto de 1926
[24] Jornal " DIÁRIO DE NOTÍCIAS " de 1 de Agosto de 1926
[25] Jornal "A TARDE" de 31 de Juiho de 1926
[26] Jornal "O SÉCULO" de 1 de Agosto de 1927
[27] Jornal "DIÁRIO DE NOTÍCIAS" de 15 de Setembro de 1926
[28] www.steyr-mannlicher
 
 
 


 


 

Page built September 26, 1999
Re-built February 11, 2000
Photos added, January 14, 2001

Copyright Jaime Regalado, 1999, 2000